smacof: Multidimensional Scaling

Implements the following approaches for multidimensional scaling (MDS) based on stress minimization using majorization (smacof): ratio/interval/ordinal/spline MDS on symmetric dissimilarity matrices, MDS with external constraints on the configuration, individual differences scaling (idioscal, indscal), MDS with spherical restrictions, and ratio/interval/ordinal/spline unfolding (circular restrictions, row-conditional). Various tools and extensions like jackknife MDS, bootstrap MDS, permutation tests, MDS biplots, gravity models, unidimensional scaling, drift vectors (asymmetric MDS), classical scaling, and Procrustes are implemented as well.

Version: 2.1-6
Depends: R (≥ 3.5.0), plotrix, colorspace, e1071
Imports: graphics, stats, polynom, Hmisc, nnls, grDevices, MASS, weights, ellipse, wordcloud, candisc, parallel, foreach, doParallel
Suggests: knitr, prefmod, MPsychoR, calibrate, ggplot2, rmarkdown
Published: 2024-03-01
DOI: 10.32614/CRAN.package.smacof
Author: Patrick Mair [aut, cre], Jan De Leeuw [aut], Patrick J. F. Groenen [aut], Ingwer Borg [ctb]
Maintainer: Patrick Mair <mair at>
License: GPL-3
NeedsCompilation: yes
Citation: smacof citation info
Materials: NEWS
In views: Psychometrics
CRAN checks: smacof results


Reference manual: smacof.pdf
Vignettes: MDS in a Nutshell
Unfolding in a Nutshell
SMACOF2 Package Vignette


Package source: smacof_2.1-6.tar.gz
Windows binaries: r-devel:, r-release:, r-oldrel:
macOS binaries: r-release (arm64): smacof_2.1-6.tgz, r-oldrel (arm64): smacof_2.1-6.tgz, r-release (x86_64): smacof_2.1-6.tgz, r-oldrel (x86_64): smacof_2.1-6.tgz
Old sources: smacof archive

Reverse dependencies:

Reverse depends: FreeSortR, mdsOpt, smacofx
Reverse imports: AnthropMMD, asymmetry, cops, CytoMDS, ecoregime, fmdu, mappoly, MDSMap, networktools, onemap, stops
Reverse suggests: dyndimred, ecotraj, FCPS, optiSel, sarp.snowprofile.alignment, seriation


Please use the canonical form to link to this page.