“opitools”

An R-package for analyzing Opinions in Big Text Document

Description

The opitools is an opinion analytical toolset designed for assessing cross-impacts of multiple subjects on the expressed opinions in a text documents (OTD). An OTD (input as textdoc) should composed of individual text records on a specified subject (A), such as a hashtag (using Twitter data) or a topic (using Facebook data). Any other subject that is referenced in relation to this primary subject A can be referred to as a secondary subject, and the records relating to the latter can be identified by searching for the keywords that define it’s text records. To download a Twitter OTD for a defined geographical area, please see the manual of rtweet package (Kearney, 1019). In the article adepeju, M. and Jimoh, F. (2021), we described how to deploy opitools in order to answer a real-life research question, stated as follows: ‘what are the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic (secondary subject) on the public opinion concerning neighbourhood policing (primary subject) across England and Wales?’ Please note: A freshly downloaded OTD will require some data cleaning exercises in order to remove unwanted texts, such as duplicates, punctuations, hashtags, emojis, and stop words.

Installation from CRAN

From an R console, type:

#{r, echo=TRUE, message=FALSE, eval=TRUE}
#install.packages("opitools")
library(opitools)

To install the development version of the package, type: remotes::install_github("MAnalytics/opitools"). Please, report any installation problems in the issues.

Example usage

Below is an example usage of the main opitools function, opi_impact. Given an OTD consisting of public tweets concerning neighbourhood policing during the COVID-19 pandemic, for a geographical area, the followings demonstrate how opitools can be used to estimate the opinion score and also answer the afore-stated research question. In this example, I will use a fake OTD, namely policing_otd, accessible by typing policing_otd following the package installation.

Importing the dataset


> policing_otd

#to preview the text document, type:
head(policing_otd)

Performing analysis

Assuming that we want to assess the impacts of another subject inherent in the document (secondary subject B) on the original subject A (for which OTD is downloaded), we need to first identify keywords that relate to subject B in the OTD. A user can employ any relevant analytical approach in order to identify such keywords, e.g. using frequency analysis of terms within the document. A user should then collate and prepare those keywords in the same format as the covid_keys data, which is also accessible through the opitools package. The covid_keys data shows keywords that relate to the COVID-19 pandemic (as a secondary subject) of the policing_otd data.


> covid_keys 

#          keys
#1     pandemic
#2    pandemics
#3     lockdown
#4    lockdowns
#5       corona
#6  coronavirus
#7        covid
#8      covid19
#9     covid-19
#10       virus
#11     viruses
#12  quarantine
#13      infect
#14     infects
#15   infecting
#16    infected

#Running the analysis

results <- opi_impact(textdoc = policing_otd, sec_keywords=covid_keys, metric = 1,
                       fun = NULL, nsim = 99, alternative="two.sided",
                       pplot = TRUE, quiet=FALSE)
                       
print(results)

$test
[1] "Test of significance (Randomization testing)"

$criterion
[1] "two.sided"

$exp_summary
   Min. 1st Qu.  Median    Mean 3rd Qu.    Max. 
 -8.240  -5.880  -5.880  -5.028  -3.530  -1.180 

$p_table


|observed_score |S_beat |nsim |pvalue    |signif |
|:--------------|:------|:----|:----|:------|
|-5.88          |56     |99   |0.57 |'      |

$p_key
[1] "0.99'"   "0.05*"   "0.025**" "0.01***"

$p_formula
[1] "(S_beat + 1)/(nsim + 1)"

#......

References

  1. Adepeju, M. and Jimoh, F. (2021). An Analytical Framework for Measuring Inequality in the Public Opinions on Policing – Assessing the impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic using Twitter Data. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/c32qh

  2. Kearney MW (2019). “rtweet: Collecting and analyzing Twitter data.” Journal of Open Source Software, 4(42), 1829. doi: 10.21105/joss.01829