cds: Constrained Dual Scaling for Detecting Response Styles

This is an implementation of constrained dual scaling for detecting response styles in categorical data, including utility functions. The procedure involves adding additional columns to the data matrix representing the boundaries between the rating categories. The resulting matrix is then doubled and analyzed by dual scaling. One-dimensional solutions are sought which provide optimal scores for the rating categories. These optimal scores are constrained to follow monotone quadratic splines. Clusters are introduced within which the response styles can vary. The type of response style present in a cluster can be diagnosed from the optimal scores for said cluster, and this can be used to construct an imputed version of the data set which adjusts for response styles.

Version: 1.0.3
Depends: R (≥ 3.2.3), parallel
Imports: MASS, limSolve, clue, colorspace, copula, graphics, methods, stats
Published: 2016-01-05
DOI: 10.32614/CRAN.package.cds
Author: Pieter Schoonees [aut, cre]
Maintainer: Pieter Schoonees <schoonees at>
License: GPL-2 | GPL-3 [expanded from: GPL (≥ 2)]
NeedsCompilation: no
Citation: cds citation info
In views: Psychometrics
CRAN checks: cds results


Reference manual: cds.pdf


Package source: cds_1.0.3.tar.gz
Windows binaries: r-devel:, r-release:, r-oldrel:
macOS binaries: r-release (arm64): cds_1.0.3.tgz, r-oldrel (arm64): cds_1.0.3.tgz, r-release (x86_64): cds_1.0.3.tgz, r-oldrel (x86_64): cds_1.0.3.tgz
Old sources: cds archive

Reverse dependencies:

Reverse imports: ccrs


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