HoldridgePlot() creates a blank triangular plot, as proposed by Holdridge (1947, 1967), onto which potential evapotranspiration (PET) ratio and annual precipitation data can be plotted (using the AddToHoldridge() family of functions) in order to interpret climatic life zones.

HoldridgePoints(), HoldridgeText() and related functions allow data points to be added to an existing plot; AddToHoldridge() allows plotting using any of the standard plotting functions.

HoldridgeBelts() and HoldridgeHexagons() plot interpretative lines and hexagons allowing plotted data to be linked to interpreted climate settings.

Please cite Tsakalos et al. (2023) when using this function.

# Load package and data

data(holdridge, holdridgeLifeZonesUp, package = "Ternary")

# Suppress plot margins
par(mar = c(0, 0, 0, 0))

# Create blank Holdridge plot
HoldridgePlot(hex.labels = holdridgeLifeZonesUp)

# Plot data, shaded by latitude
HoldridgePoints(holdridge$PET, holdridge$Precipitation,
                col = hcl.colors(91)[abs(holdridge$Latitude) + 1],
                lwd = 2)

# Add legend to interpret shading
  "topright", bty = "n", # No box
  horiz = TRUE, # Horizontal
  x.intersp = -0.5, # Squeeze in X direction
  legend = paste0(seq(0, 90, 15), "°"),
  palette = hcl.colors(91),
  title = "Latitude"


Holdridge (1947), “Determination of world plant formations from simple climatic data”, Science 105:367–368.

Holdridge (1967), Life zone ecology. Tropical Science Center, San José.

Tsakalos, Smith, Luebert & Mucina (2023). “climenv: Download, extract and visualise climatic and elevation data.”, Journal of Vegetation Science 6:e13215.